A Modern Course in English Syntax by Wekker H., Haegeman L.

By Wekker H., Haegeman L.

A latest path in English Syntax presents intermediate and complex scholars of linguistics and English with a scientific account of the principles of English syntax, and acquaints them with the final technique of syntactic description. It teaches them easy methods to formulate syntactic arguments, and the way to use the perfect standards and exams within the research of sentences. The technical phrases and ideas wanted for discussing English constructions are awarded step by step and all phrases are essentially outlined and amply illustrated as they're brought. The textual content is interspersed all through with workouts and sensible assignments which scholars will locate either beneficial and relaxing.

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There are two basic types of denotations. First, definite DP’s (including proper names) denote entities or individuals. These elements are said to have type e. Second, sentences have type t, since only sentences have a truth-value given their propositional nature. All other categories can be thought of as functions from one type onto another21. These have type <Į,ȕ> where Į is a type and ȕ is a type. <Į,ȕ> means that it is the type of function that maps elements of type Į onto type ȕ. Intransitive verbs map an individual (the subject) to a truth-value (the sentence).

Y[Girl(y) & Q(y)]>>} DP storage yields an infinite number of non-basic translations (34) a. b. y[Girl(y) & Q(y)]>> _ xi  N } Now the final step is NP retrieval in which the second sequence is applied over the first by means of quantifying in over xi. 35 35 Examples taken from Hendriks (1993). 32 SENTENTIAL NEGATION AND NEGATIVE CONCORD Although this simplifies the required syntax to only one structure, it makes the interpretation procedure far more complex, as the interpretation does not yield sets of meanings (for ambiguity) but ‘sets of sequences of sequences of meanings’36.

Adverbs can be regarded as (generalised) quantifiers38 as they bind variables too, such as temporal adverbs binding time variables. Likewise, negation can be seen as a quantifier that binds events. Moreover, sentences consisting of a quantifying DP and a negation can (in some languages) also give rise to ambiguity. (37) Every man didn’t leave: ǹ > ™ ‘Nobody left’ ™ >  ‘Not everybody left’ One strategy for solving this ambiguity is either by assuming lowering of the quantifying DP (reconstruction) or by assuming raising of the negation to a higher position (neg-raising).

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