A Short Grammar of Kabardian by Ranko Matasović

By Ranko Matasović

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Af. "Karašavey fed his guest and his horse" (in this sentence the name Q'arašəway would be in the ergative as the causer, the undergoer of the underived verb, i. e. the food, which is unexpressed, would be in the nominative, and the only case-marked nouns (haś'a and šə) are in the ergative as the indirect objects viz. non-macrorole core arguments). These unusual rules on case assignment with causative verbs are related to the rules on case assignment in subordinate clauses (see below), where the case of the nouns in the main clause depends on the role of these nouns in the subordinate clause.

It can be freely combined with the causative prefix, which it follows, cf. g. śābə "soft", wəśabən "to make soft, soften", yaġawəśabən "make someone soften (something). 43 Matasović: A Short Grammar of Kabardian ACTIVE (DYNAMIC) AND STATIVE VERBS The division into dynamic and stative verbs does not coincide with the division into transitive and intransitive verbs. Both transitive and intransitive verbs can be either dynamic or static. Dynamic intransitive verbs express action, activity; they are morphologically marked by the prefix -aw- in the present tense.

For similar examples from Mingrelian, Ingush, Khinalug, and Abkhaz. ) 1957: 93. 50 Matasović: A Short Grammar of Kabardian PERSONAL AND DIRECTIONAL PREFIXES The use of directional prefixes is compulsory with many verbs for certain persons and tenses; the use of these prefixes is quite idiomatic, and it seems that each verb has its own pattern56, cf. -af. -to wait də-n-aw-ź-ā-ś "we waited for you" d-aw-źa "we wait for him/them" q'ə-z-aw-źa "they wait for me" etc. )" d-yə-ź-ā-ś "we waited for him/them" q'ə-za-ź-ā-ś "they waited for me" Some believe that the use of the directional prefix q'ə- with polyvalent intransitive verbs depends on the person hierarchy (see below).

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