By Alton Meister
A continuous authoritative sequence reviewing learn into enzymology and similar parts of molecular biology. provides six papers by means of best professionals.
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Additional info for Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Volume 55
Concentrations of blasticidin S which inhibited glyceollin synthesis had little effect on degradation of the phytoalexin, thereby suggesting that the turnover system was constitutive (224). As different elicitor treatments may differentially affect ['4C]phenylalanine uptake, and degradation of exogenously supplied phytoalexins may occur in different pools to that of the in vivo synthesized compounds, the above work was reexamined using cotyledons of Glycine max pulselabeled with 14C02 (225,226).
This clearly raises the important problem of the substrate specificity of the prenyl transferase(s) (189). In addition to the above stages of prenyl addition, there is also the question of whether the enzymes are specific for the two distinct A-ring hydroxylation patterns encountered, or for the position (8-,6-, or 3'-, isoflavone numbering) of insertion of the prenyl group. Plant enzymes transferring prenyl residues to aromatic rings have been described in Rutu gruveolens, where a dimethylallyl pyrophosphate :umbelliferone dimethylallyl transferase is involved in the biosynthesis of furanocoumarins (213), and in elicitor-treated hypocotyls of Glycine m a , where a DMAPP :dihydroxypterocarpan dimethylallyl transferase catalyzes the presumed penultimate stage in the biosynthesis of the glyceollins (214).
BIOSYNTHESIS AND ENZYMOLOGY The basic unit from which terpenoids are synthesized is the fivecarbon isoprene unit; monoterpenes are derived from two such units, sesquiterpenes from three units and diterpenes from four units. A carbon atom may be lost in some terpenoid phytoalexins during the process of biosynthesis; for example, the norsesquiterpenoid rishitin (LXII)has 14 instead of 15 carbon atoms. A general scheme relating the synthesis of terpenoid phytoalexins with other areas of tissue metabolism is depicted in Scheme 14.