By Isaac Chang, Yuyuan Zhao
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Additional info for Advances in powder metallurgy: Properties, processing and applications
G. g. 16 The extra thick lines indicate the 3PIs. can only be a line or point, although charge transfer reactions involve both electrons and ions in close proximity to the geometric 3PI. 46 Qualitatively, electroreduction will be quicker to complete on smaller metal oxide particles, but the actual time or rate of reduction should also depend on the nature of the metal oxide. For example, at the same applied cathode potential and temperature in molten CaCl2, it was observed that NiO or Fe2O3 could be reduced much quicker than TiO220,47.
Foreign body contamination with such substances as wood, plastic and mineral dust in HIP powders is highly undesirable, leading to defects in HIP products. Plain bad housekeeping is obviously the first suspect and all transfer operations, containers and so on need to be examined to ensure they are scrupulously clean and sealed at all times. For aerospace applications, some have resorted to containing all powder transfer work in a clean room with filtered air. The next common source of contamination is seal materials such as gaskets, elastomeric valve seats or seals and so on.
Similar findings are reported for other metals and alloys in the form of either a porous body or powder,4,15–20 making this new process a potential commercial alternative to existing carbon-based technologies. 18,19 It starts by making the oxide into a cathode which is then placed in the molten salt, typically CaCl2 at 900°C. After inserting the anode, for example a graphite rod, electrolysis is carried out between the cathode and the anode at a voltage that is sufficiently higher than the decomposition voltage of the oxide at the cathode.