American Language Supplement 1 by H. L. Mencken

By H. L. Mencken

Probably the 1st actually vital booklet in regards to the divergence of yank English from its British roots, this survey of the language because it was once spoken-and because it was once changing-at the start of the twentieth century comes through one in all its so much inveterate watchers, journalist, critic, and editor HENRY LOUIS MENCKEN (1880-1956).In this copy of the 1921 "revised and enlarged" moment version, Mencken turns his willing ear on:

• the final personality of yank English
• loan-words and non-English influences
• expletives and forbidden words
• American slang
• the way forward for the language
• and lots more and plenty, a lot more.

Anyone fascinated with phrases will locate this a completely spell binding examine the main changeable language at the face of the planet.

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There are two basic types of denotations. First, definite DP’s (including proper names) denote entities or individuals. These elements are said to have type e. Second, sentences have type t, since only sentences have a truth-value given their propositional nature. All other categories can be thought of as functions from one type onto another21. These have type <Į,ȕ> where Į is a type and ȕ is a type. <Į,ȕ> means that it is the type of function that maps elements of type Į onto type ȕ. Intransitive verbs map an individual (the subject) to a truth-value (the sentence).

Y[Girl(y) & Q(y)]>>} DP storage yields an infinite number of non-basic translations (34) a. b. y[Girl(y) & Q(y)]>> _ xi  N } Now the final step is NP retrieval in which the second sequence is applied over the first by means of quantifying in over xi. 35 35 Examples taken from Hendriks (1993). 32 SENTENTIAL NEGATION AND NEGATIVE CONCORD Although this simplifies the required syntax to only one structure, it makes the interpretation procedure far more complex, as the interpretation does not yield sets of meanings (for ambiguity) but ‘sets of sequences of sequences of meanings’36.

Adverbs can be regarded as (generalised) quantifiers38 as they bind variables too, such as temporal adverbs binding time variables. Likewise, negation can be seen as a quantifier that binds events. Moreover, sentences consisting of a quantifying DP and a negation can (in some languages) also give rise to ambiguity. (37) Every man didn’t leave: ǹ > ™ ‘Nobody left’ ™ >  ‘Not everybody left’ One strategy for solving this ambiguity is either by assuming lowering of the quantifying DP (reconstruction) or by assuming raising of the negation to a higher position (neg-raising).

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