By Benoit Dufort
Analog attempt sign iteration utilizing Periodic SigmaDelta-Encoded Data Streams provides a brand new option to generate top of the range analog signs with low complexity. The thought of periodic SigmaDelta-encoded bitstreams is gifted alongside with a collection of empirical tables to aid choose the suitable parameters of a bitstream. An optimization process is additionally defined to assist opt for a section series with the specified attributes. a wide number of indications should be generated utilizing this strategy. Silicon implementation matters are mentioned with a particular emphasis on zone overhead and simplicity of layout. One FPGA circuit and 3 diversified silicon implementations are awarded besides experimental effects. it really is proven that straightforward designs are able to producing very excessive precision signals-on-chip. The method is additional prolonged to multi-bit sign iteration the place it truly is proven the right way to elevate the functionality of arbitrary waveform, turbines in general present in earlier and present-day mixed-signal testers. No ameliorations are required, in simple terms the numbers in reminiscence are replaced. 3 diverse calibration recommendations to minimize the consequences of the AWG's non-linearities also are brought, including assisting experimental proof.
the main target of this article is to explain an area-efficient process for analog sign iteration utilizing SigmaDelta-encoded facts move. The major features of the strategy are:
- excessive caliber indications (SFDR of one hundred ten dB observed);
- huge number of indications generated;
- Bitstreams simply acquired with a quick optimization software;
- strong frequency solution, suitable with coherent sampling;
- easy and speedy undefined implementation;
- typically electronic, other than an simply testable 1-bit DAC and probably a reconstruction filter out;
- reminiscence already to be had on-chip could be reused, lowering zone overhead;
- Designs may be included into latest CAD instruments;
- excessive frequency iteration.
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Extra info for Analog Test Signal Generation Using Periodic ΣΔ-Encoded Data Streams
The sinewave tone is visible with reduced noise around it, while most ofthe quantization noise power is shaped towards high frequencies. 3 Generating Periodic Bit Streams The idea behind periodic bit stream generation is to use a L~ modulator to produce a I-bit output representing the periodic signal at the input of the modulator. Since the output is not periodic, an integer number of periods from the output are captured and reproduced periodically. In this way it is possible to achieve a close approximation of the infinite length bit stream.
The block diagram of a general l:~ modulator is given if Fig. 3-6 (a). A linear model is obtained by replacing the quantizer by an adder with a white noise source Q(z) as shown in Fig. 3-6 (b). The loop filter H(z) is a filtering function that depends on the type and order of the modulator. From feedback theory, the equation for the modulator can be written in terms of the feedforward and feedback parameters as _ H(z) + 1 fez) - X(z) . 28) The idea of L~ modulation is to find a STF that will leave the signal unchanged while attenuating the noise in the same band of interest.
Pure analog generators are excluded because they are not suited for BIST due to their sensitivity to process variations and their need for calibration. 1 Direct Digital Frequency Synthesis Direct Digital Frequency Synthesis (DDFS) is a method to generate high 22 Chapter 2: Mixed-Signal Testing precision analog signals using digital hardware and a multi-bit digital-to-analog converter. The principle behind DDFS is to sequentially access the addresses of a ROM containing the sample points of a sinewave.