Angel Veneration and Christology. A Study in Early Judaism by Loren T. Stuckenbruck

By Loren T. Stuckenbruck

The general public worship of the risen Christ as depicted in John's Apocalypse without delay contradicts the guiding angel's emphasis that purely God may be worshiped (Revelation 19:10; 22:8-9). In Angel Veneration and Christology, Loren Stuckenbruck explores this contradiction in mild of angel veneration in Early Judaism.
Stuckenbruck surveys a large choice of Jewish traditions relating to angelic worship and discovers proscriptions opposed to sacrificing to angels; prohibitions opposed to making pictures of angels; rejections of the "two powers"; second-century Christian apologetic accusations in particular directed opposed to Jews; and, most significantly, the refusal culture, frequent in Jewish and Jewish-Christian writings, in which angelic messengers refuse the veneration of the seer and exhort the worship of God alone.
While facts for the perform of angel veneration among Jews of antiquity (Qumran, pseudepigraphal literature, and inscriptions from Asia Minor) doesn't provide the instant heritage for the worship of Christ, Stuckenbruck demonstrates that the actual fact that safeguards to a monotheistic framework have been issued in any respect throws mild at the Christian perform of worshiping Jesus. the best way the Apocalypse adapts the refusal culture illuminates Revelation's declarations approximately and depictions of Jesus. although the refusal culture itself in basic terms safeguards the worship of God, Stuckenbruck strains how the culture has been break up in order that the angelophanic components have been absorbed into the christophany. As Stuckenbruck exhibits, an angelomorphic Christology, shared by way of the writer of Revelation and its readers, features to maintain the author's monotheistic emphasis in addition to to stress Christ's superiority over the angels―setting the degree for the worship of the Lamb in a monotheistic framework that doesn't contradict the angelic directive to worship God on my own.

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157-67 and Philipp VIELHAUER, Geschichte der urchristlichen Literatur (Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1978 ) 500-501. 2 Introduction 24 the text of the Apocalypse by positing essentially this method has gradually lost support, still 64 apply i t , while using Christology as Jewish sources. Though some interpreters of the Apocalypse a determinative c r i t e r i o n . 65 While the possibility that the author has integrated Jewish material cannot be cat­ egorically dismissed, the attempt to posit sources in order to account for the Christology of the document often rests on tenuous assumptions concerning what can and cannot properly belong to a Jewish or (Jewish-) Christian m i ­ lieu.

R. J. VERMASEREN, Studies in Gnosticism and Helle­ nistic Religions. Festschrift for G. J. Brill, 1981) 78-91. CUL1ANU rightly distinguishes "ditheism (or binitarianism) and dualism" (p. 78) and sees in the former a Jewish "pre-Christian" conception which was transformed into the latter through the fusion of the notion of an­ gelic guardians of the nations and a categorical conviction (post-70 CE) of Roman rule as satanic. B. Mohr [Paul Siebeck], 1985), esp. pp. 241- 338. See also "The New Religionsgeschichtliche Schule: The Quest for Jewish Christology," SBL 1991 Seminar Papers, ed.

PETERSEN in his overview of "mono­ theism" in Old Testament scholarship in "Israel and Monotheism: The Unfin­ ished Agenda," in eds. Gene M. TUCKER, David L. PETERSEN, and Robert R. WIL4 1 Introduction 16 identify at least three reasons for and twentieth-century scholarship, fluential istic of this attitude: (1) In both the expression often functioned as an i n ­ theological category which was all too readily absorbed perspectives. Israelite Thus, religion, when scholars post-exilic nineteenth- attempted Judaism and historical Christianity, into ideal­ reconstructions they ventured theological judgments in which "monotheism" tended to function as an organi­ zing principle, 42 whether considered as a purer form of religion from which 43 later Judaism ("Spatjudentum") deteriorated, or as the culmination of a long 44 process that began with various forms of polytheism.

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