Applied Anatomy of the Back by Professor Dr. med. Josef Rickenbacher, Professor Dr. med.

By Professor Dr. med. Josef Rickenbacher, Professor Dr. med. Alex M. Landolt, Professor Dr. med. Karl Theiler, Professor Dr. med. Heinrich Scheier, Professor Dr. med. Jean Siegfried, Professor Dr. med. Franz J. Wagenhäuser (auth.)

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Ligaments of the Spine Poslcrinr longilUdillal li tHl lllcnl The bodies as well as the processes of the vertebrae are connected by ligaments. a) The vertebral bodies are connected anteriorly and posteriorly by the very differently constituted anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments. These counteract disruptive forces transmitted by the nuclei pulposi and so they tend to shorten the spine. a) The anterior longitudinal ligament (Fig. 43) is particu- larly broad in its caudal part, the lower end of which is inseparably uni ted with the periosteum of the sacrum and is continued on to the pelvic surface of the coccyx as the sacrococcygeal ligament.

They are twisted about their long axes, the upper ribs especially so (torsion, Fig. 55). 55). The heads and tuberc1es of the ribs articulate with the spine. The heads of ribs lI-X are in contact not only with the corresponding vertebra, but also with the intervertebral disc above and the body of the vertebra above that (Fig. 56). The lower ribs have progressively smaller tuberc1es. Ribs XI and XII have no tuberc1e and no sulcus. The sharpest rib curvature (angle 0/ rib) is adjacent to the tuberc1e of the first rib and increasingly lateral to the tuberc1e of each succeeding rib.

In the sacrum they give rise to the anterior component of each lateral part. Roughly speaking, the vertebral bodies look rectangular in the cervical region, semicircular in the thoraeie region and reniform in the lumbar region. The spinous process of each cervical vertebra (C VII excepted) is bifid. The atlas has no spinous process, only a superficial posterior tubercle. The spinous processes of the other cervical vertebrae are very dissimilar. That of the axis is usually only slightly bifid, as, but only exceptionally, may be that of C VI.

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