By Truman S. Gray
A easy textual content protecting the actual phenomena excited about digital conduction; ways that those phenomena mix to manipulate the features, rankings, and barriers of digital units; and purposes of electronics to a number of the branches of electric engineering.
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Extra info for Applied electronics : a first course in electronics, electron tubes, and associated circuits
Al though in general the equipotential surfaces are curved, they may be considered to be parallel planes in the region traversed by the electron if they are sufficiently close together. Thus, while the electron is passing through the infinitesi mal region that separates the two sur faces, the velocity component v1 sin i tangential to the surfaces does not change, because it is perpendicular to the direction of the force exerted on the electron by the electric field. Hence, Vi sin i = v2 sin r , [ 79] and [ S O] The angles i and r are analogous to the angles of incidence and re fraction in optics, and Eq.
Their separation is about 7 ,900 miles, or 1 . 27 X 1 07 meters. Their charge is given by Eq. 85 = 1 . 95 X 1 014tons. X 18 107 ) 2 - 1 . 7 3 X 1 0 newtons  _  Clearly, the electron's charge-to-mass ratio is enormous to produce such a large force at such a great distance. Consequently, the electric force on an electron in an electrostatic field can overcome the inertia of the electron and produce high velocities in a very short time. With kno\vledge of the charge and mass of the particles involved i n electronics, it i s possible t o proceed with the analysis of the motion o f particles i n electrostatic and magnetostatic fields given i n the follow ing articles of this chapter.
For a. discussion of the force on a single moving charge, see W. R. Smythe, Static and Dynamic Electricity (2nd ed. , 1 950), 565-567 and 574-576. 32 ELEOTRON BA LLISTICS [Oh. I In the notation of vector analysis,2 2 the vector force F as given by Eq. 84 is F = Q (v X B), [ 89] and as given b y E q . 8 5 is* F i = X B.  As a result of the force, acceleration of the charged particle takes place, and F ma = Q(v X B ) .  = In the rectangular co-ordinate system of Fig. 9, Eq. 9 1 becomes the set of three differential equations [ B dy d2y Q[ B d2 -m Q[ d d 2z B x - d2x dt2 _ - Q m • dt '" dt 11 dt dz _ t dt 2 _ m _ _ _ ] dX] B dY] B B dz 11 dt ' • dt ' '" dt ' �[ 9 2] �[93 ] �[9 4] where B "" B 1I, and B .